Writing System & Process

This process or writing system is created to improve consistent execution.

This process was designed to get through the clarification and condensing information phase of your project. Improving the quality of content and the quality of your formatting.

Writing consists of these phases:

  • Idea generation
  • Clarification
  • Condensing
  • Purpose
  • Drafting
  • Editing

Write in order of importance of your ideas or project to help you focus on one at a time.

  • All ideas within one writing project should support the main important idea/purpose of the text. Everything else should be removed.

5-Step Writing Process

Prewriting: Priming

1. Understanding Your Purpose and Intentions

    Begin by understanding the purpose or intention of your writing project. Its main idea or problem. This clarity will expedite the writing process while ensuring the foundation of your thoughts is solid.

    What change do you most want to see and/or create? This will help you define your intentions or goals.

    2. Brainstorming

      Generate and choose ideas related to your topic, encouraging creative and thoughtful insights that will enrich your content.

      3. Outlining

        Create a logical structure for your thoughts and ideas, allowing for a clear and organised journey from unaware to informed. Having your end goal and each step outlined will determine whether or not you’ve outlined is finished.

        Structure and Flow: Ensure your thoughts flow seamlessly, maintaining the reader's engagement. Does every paragraph flow into the next?

        Prioritise: Prioritise your thoughts and ideas throughout your writing in order. Only including and addressing certain things. Creates focus and conveys the level of importance for your reader.

        4. Editing: Refine your thoughts

          Condense your writing by removing any throwaway lines. Ensuring they are not only well-articulated but also of the highest quality.

          5. Improve Word Choice: Refine your final draft

            Make sure each sentence doesn’t require further refinement. Select words more precisely, evoking the desired emotions and responses from your audience. Does each sentence convey its purpose clearly and effectively?

            This is when you should also make sure your style, tone, and voice are consistent.

            Style and Tone: Your word choice reflects your specific tone, style and voice. Elevating your writing to another level of impact based on your intention or goal.

            Efficiency and Emotion: Evaluate whether your draft efficiently conveys emotions and information, enhancing the overall quality of your work.

            💭 Prewriting: Priming

              List out all the tasks you might need to do (and how) before, during, and after this project.

              Before I start to write. I think about the psychology of the individual I’m writing about or to.

              Start with three thoughts.

              • Motives behind needing this topic.
              • Ways you can describe this topic. Unique positioning, views, mechanisms (approaches).
              • Type of persuasion that works within this context + Structural or informational elements

              I try to gauge my level of understanding while I write. To make sure I continue to develop my clarity and accuracy of words.

              • Learning vs. Understanding: You can score yourself 0/10: Surface level knowledge - internalised knowledge.

              Questions you should be able to answer: If you understand this, you can understand how to sell.

              • You should have some clarity on what you want to write
              • Through collecting research and understanding the topic or by asking yourself questions
              • What does the person currently think about themselves (their internal dialogue) that stops them from getting what they want?
              • How can you change their (the customer's/character’s) current thinking? What would need to happen to them?
              • Understanding the audience's (or character's) needs, desires, wants, and fears.
              • How does your audience/character talk - what language do they use?

              Your Reader and Your Audience

              Getting specific on who you serve can be challenging when starting but recognising who this project is for will help you make better decisions.

              • This also helps you ask more specific questions, which tends to make it easier to create an emotional impact.

              Here are some criteria you can start with:

              Male or Female

              Young or Old

              City or Country

              Single or Married

              Tech Savvy or Prefer physical documents

              Creative or analytical

              • What problems do they want help with?
              • What are their personal preferences?
              • How do they communicate, their tone and style?

              Summarise back to your ideal audience what they want, how they communicate and how they see the world.

              A brief overview of thinking frameworks you can use:

              • What problems do they want help with?
              • What are their personal preferences?
              • How do they communicate, their tone and style?

              Summarise back to your ideal audience what they want, how they communicate and how they see the world.

              Thinking Framework;

              What’s in it for me? Why should I care?

              How is it possible? (I don’t Believe you.)

              How does it work?

              – Mechanism –

              How can I get started?

              (Is this real? Is this beneficial?)







              • Create certainty, trust, and authority through clarity of the client's problems and perspective.

              Clarify: Set Expectations

              What are your expectations for this text?

              • Having your goal broken down clearly, well-defined and manageable. Can help remove blocks and resistance to progress.

              Like with all types of skills, there’s going to be a gap. Between what you can currently achieve and what you want to achieve. Fully understanding the process and identifying your weaknesses. This is the first step to continuous quality practice.

              • What are your intentions when writing this piece?
              • What do you want to get across and convey?
              • Your word choice and the questions you ask reflect how you think.
              • Why is this important?

              The more clarity and the deeper you understand about a subject will inform you better about the most effective way to get your desired effect from an audience.

              For copywriting, I think…

              • Who is my audience - what do they want, need, fear, desire
              • I also tend to remind myself not to get bogged down in the details or research - you can always do more research later if you feel it’s needed
              • How can I give my audience what they want?
              • I explored different ways of delivery through word choice and different mediums
              • Once I understand my promise or premise and my audience I start to write.

              When writing I ask myself…

              Can I remove any words to make this more concise and impactful?

              Can I make this clearer and more emotionally persuasive?

              Does this word choice reflect the tone and style?

              Is every paragraph flowing into the next that makes the audience think “And, then what?”

              A lot of branding and businesses can also be explained as making a promise and keeping it. The psychology of an audience is the same skill needed to understand your characters. It takes empathy and time to get good at understanding it, but everyone can develop this skill.

              Once practice I’ve started to improve is to collecting “premium words”. Or, words that can be used to be more precise in your meaning. Expanding your deep and surface lexicon (most common words you choose) is important. Other copywriters also like to have a range of cultural sayings in their tool belt.

              • Choosing who you’re not for and what you won’t write about. Is a good way to start deciding where to start when making these decisions.

              It’s great to start developing your own clarifying and qualifying questions that you can refer to throughout this process. That way you can have a clear road map that works and applies specifically for you.

              Organise Your Research

              Think about ways to make your process easier, faster and better. This includes your research. Document your process, remove obstacles, simplify, and if you can delegate.

              You can make your research process faster but having a series of questions you need to be able to understand and answer for every project in the future. I’ve developed this for my copywriting projects.

              👩‍💻 Writing Overview + Qualify Ideas

                One way of viewing a story is the destination of a complex theme, values, claim or thesis. To convey meaning in its simplest form.

                The basic steps;

                1. Define your goal/problem/topic or idea
                2. Gather reliable resources (enough to start structuring your text - word positioning, sentence structure, paragraph sequence)
                3. Write within your structure/outline
                4. Start writing to fill in the outline until you lack any more knowledge to keep going
                5. Gather more info when needed
                6. Finish draft
                7. Past text through the editing process
                8. Change environment or emotional state if needed
                9. Repeat the drafting and editing process when needed

                I would recommend starting simple like removing overused words like very, and really. It’s more important to get in the habit of finishing your project rather than getting it perfect.

                Be aware of your limitations and adjust your goals accordingly.

                • Think about how you would write in your desired style before you start. For better representation and accuracy. You can also use other author's text to sample the style you want to mimic.
                • Think about the psychological needs and motivations behind who you are writing for and about. Whether it’s to a target customer, your audience or your character’s motivations.
                • They want to go from point A to B the shortest. Think about their limiting beliefs or misbeliefs that are blocking them. What’s in their way?
                • Each scene or paragraph should have at least one function -to create empathy, to progress the plot, to contribute to the overarching themes, etc

                It helps to associate your work process with your motive:

                Why is this so important for you to complete?

                Ex. Complete task > Job > Money > Wealth > Friendship > Freedom > Happiness > The life I Dream Of

                3. 📑 Outlining: Know Your End Goal

                It’s important to craft this outline that works for you, to remove resistance to ending each project, leaving you with more energy and time for your creativity.

                • If you have a reliable outline to use for all projects. It can help track, remove and/or identify potential problems for your reader’s experience
                • Problems become easier to identify and fix
                • Having a thorough outline will lessen your editing as you know what’s missing and where
                • Having the ending in mind will help you know what you would need to build up the payoff. You can then reverse-engine each event that needs to happen and when.

                Outlining using short sentences and dot points makes everything clear and each section can be extended. This will also give you clear goals and one direction.

                When you can use basic structured outlines easily;

                You start to develop a deep understanding of each element. Letting you utilise each better for its purpose and understand its importance. Elements like psychology, perception, decision-making, persuasion etc.

                • What do your readers need to know and how do you want them to feel within each section?

                • What are all the points you want to make and in which order?

                You can craft your qualifying questions to know if you have the level of quality you aspire to consistently hit.

                I.e. has the reader become well-informed about the topic? Is this easily understood by people reading on this subject for the first time?

                • Keep in mind that the audience will only continue to read if they feel it’s worth the time and effort.
                • Think about your desired change in belief or perspective you want to write about.
                • Through educational and/or aspirational content (inspire a change in behaviour to strive for a higher ideal or result)
                • Through providing interesting ideas. That’s clear and coherent. That’s practical and can be applied. That has something new or novel about it.

                This can mean keeping promises or closing the plot loop while being entertaining.

                Ex. If your story is a quest. You will need to accomplish the quest to keep your promise.

                • It doesn’t matter which sections in your outline you write first. As long as you have an accurate outline you have direction and context to start thinking with.


                Structure not from start to finish but the whole amalgamation of scenes or information to emphasise the continued losses (or gains) from what the initial one caused.

                Use the structure to fit what the story or project might need. Rather than fitting your story into a structure.

                Outline structure:

                • Setup, conflict, resolution.
                • Problem, agitation, solution.
                • Hook, conflict/tension, conclusion.
                • Positive benefit, positive benefit, negative pain point, negative pain point, appeal to status, appeal to pride
                • Introduction, thesis, conclusion
                • Goal/intention, obstacle/problem, stakes to create tension > achievement or failure
                • Promise, progress, payoff

                The short outline can look like this:




                Copywriting structures;

                Hook (product and ideal audience + Desired transformation)

                Social Proof + Ideal Audience

                Pain Points (satisfy psychological needs)

                The solution

                Dream Points + Benefits:



                Headline – use their language

                Personal Intro – targeting – clarity (get to the point then use imagery – Seeing, feeling, smelling, hearing, tasting)

                Story – the underdog, the hero, upholds morals/justice/order, throws stones at enemies, and roots for dreams and change.

                The problem - Underlying motive to solve the problem

                The solution

                (Social proof – testimonial)

                USP (what do you offer that others can’t) - Show up differently for yourself and the world


                Buying benefit

                More buying benefits


                More USP (what do you offer that others can’t)

                (Social proof – testimonial)



                Personal closing


                Use - “and, therefore” or “but, then” between each sentence.

                When outlining an ebook;

                I’ve heard it described as writing many articles and putting them all together to answer one big problem.

                For an article;

                you would have everything framed towards answering a problem or contributing to a big idea. Each chapter addresses smaller contributing ideas/topics. While answering the reader’s fears, doubts, desires etc.

                One big idea, followed by smaller ideas, that ends with connecting the small ideas to support the big idea.

                Other structures can be described as…

                • Set-ups and punch lines
                • Confusion to clarity
                • Tension to release

                In emotional techniques:

                • Anger to envy
                • Doubt to Confidence

                In story structures:

                • Rags to riches
                • Tragic Comedy

                • You can first write one sentence to craft a short outline. Then expand on it into multiple sentences to create a long outline.
                • You can also include notes about your character's transformation and emotional states when structuring. Creating these footnotes helps you know what emotions you want to provoke in your reader.

                Storytelling that has contrasting emotions can create a sense of catharsis. It can also imply a change in perspective or belief.

                Psychology and Motivations

                What are your customer and/or character needs and motivations?

                Types of emotional drivers and motivations:

                Livelihood issue (can’t live without)

                Social pressure or fun (can live without)

                Value-oriented or identity reinforcement (passion)

                Fear. Annoyance. Obligation. (non-passionate)


                Material Needs

                Spiritual Needs

                Internal Emotional Needs

                Physical Needs

                Motivational Needs

                Internal Motivations: Curiosity, Purpose, Autotelicity (What you love), Mastery, Autonomy

                External Motivations: Money, Praise, Status

                Big Emotional Needs; Need (to prevent pain or problem), Greed, Envy or Vanity

                For Copywriting; New, Easy, Safe, Big, Fast

                Having an in-depth understanding of people, their motivations, and psychology takes time to develop. You can always fall back on the problem/solution structure.

                • Making someone feel safe is important to create trust. People are more willing to trust someone who reflects their interests and beliefs, even if it’s undeserved.

                It’s best to use precise language about who you're talking to and what you’re talking about. Even if it’s not always commonly spoken as long as it’s widely understood and clear to your target audience.

                • Some people don’t realise how they think and the words they use might be particular to another person. This is why it’s a good idea to have some awareness about how you talk and write when it comes to how other people relate to it. A word that means one thing to you could have a different connotation to another. Another reason why being clear and precise is so important.

                It takes time to have a good understanding of psychology but it’s worth the effort to better understand how people operate. It helps indicate how a person will act based on their temperament and other contributing factors.

                For example;

                • Most of the time short-term thinkers need quick gratification. Making them only act when they know they’ll get instant rewards or incentives. They also usually act impatient.

                Developing your understanding of value positioning, pricing, and offer creation. Is important for a copywriter but for the sake of simplicity I decided to not go into depth about it here.

                4. 🖋 Editing With Intention

                Conveying information based on importance and intention. How it affects the paragraph as a whole.

                Editing is especially important depending on how you want the story executed. This is done through an understanding of emotional persuasion, psychology, reasoning and demonstrating proof.

                • The best promises are grounded in equal amounts of believability and truth to their claim or promise.
                • Every sentence needs to serve a function and be aligned with your intentions

                All my editing decisions for copywriting;

                • Remove passive voice, endless; you’re intentionally directing/introducing the reader to view something new. Otherwise, it creates a separation between the subject and the reader.
                • Consider keeping the text under grade 5 reading level or below. To simplify and make clear the text to reach a wider audience. (Endless if you intentionally want to challenge your readers or you’re writing something technical.)
                • Simplify complex sentences
                • The bigger the claims the more evidence and persuasive arguments you need to write. Keep your writing believable (even for fantasy or supernatural), everything should be grounded in facts and logic.
                • Remove throw-away words such as very, or really.
                • Write in the present tense. (This helps the reader feel close to the writer’s experience)
                • Get rid of unneeded information or words that don’t contribute to the goal or the purpose of the text
                • Replace generic words with specific strong emotionally provoking ones (it’s a good idea to have an emotion chart or create a word list)

                Qualifying questions while editing;

                • Does this edit improve the delivery of this text?
                • Does the function of the text improve?
                • Will this text be gripping for the reader?
                • Does this draft convey emotions and information efficiently?
                • Are the paragraphs in an order that builds interest and intrigue?
                • There are also a few other questions I ask myself at this point but the final draft should mostly be done.

                You could also try to find other professional’s qualifying questions to use.

                If I don’t feel my word choice gives me an efficient emotional response, replace it or research for a better descriptive word.

                A lot of successful writers write and edit on different days. This gives you more distance to your writing, letting you evaluate it more accurately.

                For a creative project how you format and frame your text should still be within the context of delivering your story in a way that achieves your highest priority and makes sense.

                • You can still experiment with how you format to reflect your writing style. Keep in mind that catering to only your taste may alienate other readers. Shrinking your audience size.

                Sentence Structure and Word Choice

                Sentence length and word choice. Also, the placement of words frames the context of the information. This influences how it’s perceived and read.

                Stories are structured in a way that implies promise(s) to the audience and then delivers it. This is the same for all types of stories and sales copywriting.

                If you’re going to make big promises you will likely need to write more to sell people on it. Unless it’s already a believable claim.

                • This is one pitfall some fantasy authors make. Even if it’s made up through imagination. It needs to feel real and thus the audience needs an explanation, depths of knowledge and understanding.

                Crafting A Sentence Qualifying questions…

                • What’s the main purpose of this sentence?
                • What’s the most important word or concept to convey in this sentence?
                • Is this the first thing the reader sees? Does it jump out immediately?
                • Is there a more precise, faster, better way to produce this purpose?
                • Is there a second or third purpose for this sentence?

                Is this sentence;

                Clear or unclear

                Emotionally resonating or boring/loses your interest

                Interesting or old/bland

                Why do contents and word choice matter?

                It’s to express the utility of words and if you know why something is used you can articulate how it can be used.

                Ex. A scientist may use complicated technical words to not only express their academic background but to establish themselves as an expert or authority. Meant to gain trust.

                • If this was intended for a wide audience - within the current cultural context. This could backfire - most people expect things to be simplified. Using challenging words could frustrate the reader, alienating them.
                • Using excessively complicated words could also create distrust. Like you’re trying to sound smarter than you are or trying to hide something.
                • But, if their target audience was other academics using such language might be expected.
                • This can be learned through analysing writing. Learning things such as the second sentence will have more impact than the first.

                It’s also important to realise that a person’s new perspective on a subject can be just as important as gathering new information. This means how you frame, present, and edit text can be more important and valuable than the information is perceived.

                • This is why some schools can be paid more money. They are better at curating information to deliver it to people in a better and more helpful way.

                Qualifying Questions:

                Does each scene or paragraph serve its purpose?

                Does that purpose contribute to your main goal?

                How precise and relevant are the words you used?

                Can you find more meaningful words?

                • Words have more than one meaning and can influence how information is shaped, framed and viewed through context.

                Different synonym words have different nuances and create different connotations within the text. The scope of information or scene can also provide different context connotations.

                • Be aware of your personal and cultural biases and preferences when it comes to word choice. Ask yourself if the word furthers the story or is used by the character or intended audience.
                • You can get better at crafting sentences, paragraphs and entire texts by analysing other people’s work. Figuring out what works, why and what doesn’t work.

                Tone and Style


                Reveals purpose and intentions, as well as feelings behind the words said on the page.

                It’s worth noting that how the words are delivered also applies to the context surrounding the word. And, be received differently depending on the context.

                • I try to consider what tone and style to use before writing but sometimes it’s better to build onto a draft rather than try to be perfect.

                • When you identify what styles you like the most it helps you to attach emotional adjectives to describe it clearly. Ex happy, cheery, honest, upbeat etc

                • It is best to find samples to show what you like to try to emulate their style and tone. Eventually, you may develop your distinct style and tones. Having samples will help you describe what your aim is if you’re working with other people too.

                • You could add preludes or poems between each chapter. This can create or decrease the tension and suspense in a text. Or express something that creates a different tone or underlying feeling.

                Communication style is largely based on personality, beliefs, values and cultural influences. But for your project, it’s meant to be used to further improve your intentions for this project. Elevating your current story or text.

                Rhythm and Flow

                If something sounds good and looks good it’s more likely to be remembered or hit emotionally, like a catchy song.

                When formatting words I always break up paragraphs, sentences and words. Whenever I'm transitioning into a new idea or if I'm emphasising the importance of key information.

                How you deliver information can be done with dot points, bolding, italics, numbering etc.

                • Take a look at advertisements to see how they format their words. It's designed to look appealing and easy to read.

                If you keep the same tone or flow throughout your writing. You can tire out the reader but this also depends on how your writing is meant to be read.

                • Is this a short punchy story creating a fast pace or a long series meant to be put down at some point? How your reader is meant to experience your work should inform you when choosing your pace.

                • Developing your pace doesn’t just mean short or long sentences. It can also include how fast you change subject, perspective or change your goal or promise.

                Getting rhythm and flow right can become easier if you read out loud (this is also a great way to catch mistakes). If something flows well it helps the reader to get from beginning to end in the most frictionless way.

                • As the author you need to decide if and/or when you want to put obstacles in your reader's way.

                Everything that hurts the focus of your reader to get to the end of your text is an obstacle.

                Sometimes it can be necessary if you don’t have the skill level (or if you’re working within constraints). Making it difficult to implement certain elements seamlessly for the reader.

                • Using technical terms for example. Pretty hard to leave out if you are writing about finances or science. For a professional audience, potentially alienating a larger audience.

                Limitations In Literature

                6 Common Mistakes in Writing:

                • When writing, if you allow your ego to be in charge, you’ll end up projecting all your insecurities and problems onto the page. Therefore not betraying the character accurately, writing to your chosen audience or perceiving reality accurately.

                • We can either knowingly or unknowingly project onto the universe our ideas, values and beliefs. Awareness is important to know when we’re doing it and if it serves a purpose.

                • Bad writing is usually a reflection of something you lack in your character, experience or expertise

                • I heard someone once say; that not everyone likes to think. Thinking is hard. Which might be why you would simplify your writing. If you can think you’ll likely have a competitive edge

                • Bad sentence structure is identifiable as complex. Too long. Poor sequence of words. The most important words, subject, focus and part of a sentence should be said first to grip the reader.

                • Having clarity and intention helps to distinguish which editing advice and decisions are best suited to improve and elevate the text

                Analysing your skills and other writers will help you identify weaknesses in your work and others.

                • Using repeat descriptors and words (limited vocabulary - small lexicon)

                • Weak characteristics (lack of psychological understanding and/or life experience)

                • Plot holes - structure flaws (lack of planning, a writing process, intentionality, purpose)

                • Lack of emotional resonance (too many throwaway words, lack of intentionality or purpose, no psychological persuasion or direction or tension)

                • Not able to write in the voice of characters or other views/perspectives (lack of emotional intelligence and empathy or understanding of complex viewpoints)

                Extra Tips

                Need to refresh your focus?

                • Try changing fonts
                • Try changing the text size
                • Try changing the colour of the text (you can create different segments for different functions)
                • Use the text-to-voice function and listen to the text instead.
                • Try reading your writing like your audience would for the first time - would everything make sense?
                • Get an editor who understands your goals and intentions for this literature.

                Indispensable Tools



                Google Docs


                Free Resources: Recommendations and References

                Thinking and analysing

                How I Became Articulate With My Speaking (5 Secrets) - YouTube





                Write Better

                How to Improve Your Writing Style (by Imitating Your Favorite Authors) - YouTube

                How to Build Your Writing Vocabulary - YouTube





                Read Better


                Alexander the Great and Aristotle

                What Alexander the Great Learned From Aristotle - YouTube



                How to Write Great Dialogue with Screenwriter Aaron Sorkin | SWN - YouTube

                Writing with Meaning - What Writers Can Learn from Cormac McCarthy - YouTube

                Sentence writing

                12 Ways to Write Better Sentences for Creative Writers - YouTube


                Other writer’s advice






                Outlining basics







                What is Apathy? How To Break Past It. - YouTube



                Power of words




                Author’s Notes:

                The qualifying questions used when writing:

                How do I make this easier for the reader?

                How do I make this faster for the reader?

                How do I make this less effort for the reader?

                How do I give them a better chance to succeed?

                What would make reading this copywriting easier and faster?

                What would make writing for this project easy and fast?

                Iterate your process based on your needs and preferences. Let me know if you found any interesting or useful ways to make improvements.


                This is a lot easier to navigate, refer to, and edit as a Google doc. Get a free, up-to-date, version when you sign up on my email list below.

                …hey, don’t worry, I’ll never sell your data or use it in an unethical way.

                Even if I don't talk directly with you (being an introvert and all) I'm usually hanging around kind and creative communities, maybe our paths will cross there. Connecting in a way that feels authentic, low-stakes, and no expectations. I would love to hear from you.